History of the Abacus

The abacus has a very long history. It spans over thousands of years. The earliest abacus was invented about 5000 years ago. Some expert historians believe that the abacus was invented by the ancient Chinese. Still others are of the opinion that the abacus was invented by the Babylonians or by the Egyptians. However, all these claims are backed by historical evidence like archaeological excavations and ancient texts. It may be possible that many civilizations may have invented the abacus independently and roughly at the same time.

The first counting device was the human hand and the fingers. The reason why we use the decimal system is that there are 10 fingers (both hands combined) and so it is very easy to count if 10 is the base. Later on man started using natural objects and markings to count and calculate. Larger quantities [exceeding 10] could not be easily count on the fingers. So various natural objects like pebbles and twigs were used.

Merchants needed not only needed a way to count the goods that they bought and sold, they also needed a method to perform calculations. This was achieved with the help of counting boards. Until the advent of a proper number system, counting boards were very popular. The abacus has its origin in one such counting board.

Time line of the history of the abacus:

  • 3000 BC: An early form of abacus originates in the Orient
  • 1000 BC: Chinese start using counting boards
  • 500 BC: Romans and Greeks use counting boards
  • 300 BC: Abacus is widely used as a counting device in China
  • 500 AD: The abacus is used in Europe

It’s Oh So Easy to Apply Online

Have you ever thought of how simple and easy our life is now? For those people who lived before you, it was really an adventure to do their work outside their home. Such daily tasks have now more up-to-date ways of being accomplished. Nowadays things are so simple. Everything demands considering less effort than ever before.

I'm sure you have guessed what I'm talking about. If you have not – I'm talking about the Internet. Internet requires just one click to do your work. Niceties like online banking, email, and shopping over the World-Wide-Web already exist. You do not need to go out of your home whenever you need to pay your telephone bill for example. Now you just need to apply online. The World-Wide-Web allows approach to places that will take you a lot of time. Applying online is the easiest way to find information about your credit cards, loans and so on.

Have you applied for something recently? Do you want to know which is the best 4-year University? Have you already graduated from school? So is not it easy to find a school where to get your bachelor's degree? Getting access to the universities now is easier than ever. You just need to apply online no matter which school you have chosen. You may even apply online to several schools if you prefer so. Do not miss a chance! Getting to each of the schools you consider will waste your time. It is much faster to apply online than to use the old traditional method.

Welcome to the cyber-age of technology. Imagine you have already applied online to your should. Now you may need some financial help. Now hear the news – you can just apply online for a loan on the FAFSFA website. When you click on the link, you will be guided through several steps. Check what type of loan you will be granted to take.

In addition, when you are applying online for something, you save the postage. E-mails are free. The more expenses are saved the better.

Nobody is surprised now that applying online is possible almost anything. Such comfort was not available ten years before for example. We all are happy and love this option. Currently everyone has applied online for something at least once. Just relax at home and let your computer do your work. After all, is not it the age of conveniences?

Internet Marketing for Small Business – 2 Must Follow Tactics You Must Not Allow to Pass Away

Internet marketing for small business depends on 2 vital tactics that you must not afford to pass away. These two tactics, if followed rightly, are the core components of internet marketing for small business, having the right potential to convert the targeted visitors into customers.

An effective internet marketing strategy for small business must reflect all these 2 tactics. With the help of these techniques, you will be able to setup a realistic and reasonable internet marketing goal for your small business. Let's study each of these steps deeply.

Build Trust and Credibility

Building trust and credibility is not an overnight job. In fact, it may take even years to establish a business trust and build credibility. When you consider local physical marketing, it's something easy to build trust of a person through human interaction. But the question is how do you do the same virtual?

However, there are still different ways to judge a person or a business virtually. Firstly, appear for what you are and not just pretending. Look at your website from a reader's angle. Is it professionally designed and developed? Or is it looking spammy?

Does your site contain sufficient information to satisfy the query of your targeted visitors? Do you ensure visitor's privacy? What is the guarantee you are offering along with your product? Is help-desk or customer support easily accessible or is it difficult to find? Is your site helpful to look for the product that buyers want or do you leave them in the dark and confused?

There are too many questions to be asked. But make it sure that you have answers for them all. Only when you can satisfy the visitors, you move on to the right path to build trust and credibility for your business.

Develop the Right Conversion Path

When an individual visits your site, it is well expected that s / he is a targeted visitor for your site. You must have a correct conversion path in your site that a user can easily access to buy your product. An ideal conversion path must be as follows –

Buyer hits the page -> Buyer clicks on the buy button -> Buyer is taken to the payment gateway -> Buyer makes the payment -> Buyer is taken to the thank you page that contains product / service page to download / or to receive the acknowledgment of the payment along with delivery link of the product or service

The sales page where the buyer makes his buying decision must not contain any distractions. Rather it must have a straightforward route to escort the buyer to the product page. Additionally the product page must talk about guarantee and all necessary information for customer support.

So, these are the vital 2 internet marketing tactics for small business that you must adopt, if you want to establish yourself as a successful online entrepreneur.

Top Workplace Harassment Questions

Harassment at work is a form of employee discrimination. It has many forms with varying degrees of seriousness and legal implication. While it is a violation of the 1964 Civil Rights act, it can often be difficult to prove in a court of law. This can lead to unanswered questions. Below are five of the most common workplace harassment questions.

Q. What are some types of workplace harassment?

Harassment at work includes sexual, racial, religious, and age-related harassment. The fear of losing a job keeps many employees from reporting harassment. Many employers have what is called an "at will" employment. If you are an "at will" employee, technically you can be terminated for no reason at all. Since this is usually your word vs. their word, it becomes difficult to prove. However, if you can prove the harassment – possibly with witnesses or pictures – this could be an important factor in your case.

Q. What is the difference between workplace harassment vs. a hostile working environment?

Harassment at work is any type of unwelcome action taken by either one employee towards another, or by members of management to subordinates. Management includes supervisors, the boss / owner or any person in a position of authority. Any unwelcome action towards an employee that violates the employee from performing job duties or makes the employee feel violated or uneasy can be considered workplace harassment.

A hostile work environment is when an employee experiences acts that provoke fear of going to work. Often, these acts are offensive intimidation initiated by the harasser. Yelling, being rude, and creating an environment full of severe stress results in a hostile work environment. Typically, hostile work situations are created by a boss or manager to provoke an employee or employees to quit their job.

Q. Are verbal threats considered harassment?

Verbal threats are considered a form of workplace harassment in West Virginia and many other states. However, until the harasser actually acts on the threats, you would only have a civil recourse and it does not become a criminal indemnity.

Q. Is slander the same as harassment?

Depending on the situation, slander is often considered a form of workplace harassment, especially if it was sexually oriented. Heinous lies, verbal attacks and rumors can discredit a person and cause not only stress in the workplace, but in his or her personal life as well. The law for slander differs from state to state. However, if you can prove the accusations, you may also have a case.

Q. I have been accused of sexual harassment at work; can my employer reprimand me without an investigation?

Employers are bound by most states to show that some sort of investigation was made in the event that an employee was accused of sexual or any type of workplace harassment. Employers can reprimand an employee through a verbal and written warning to be placed in the employee's permanent record. Sexual harassment in the workplace is a serious situation and can have a lasting impact on your career.